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Human and Physical Geography

The National Curriculum for Geography aims to ensure that all pupils:


Human and physical geography

  • identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of the world in relation to the Equator and the North and South Poles
  • use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to:
  • key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather
  • key human features, including: city, town, village, factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop

KS2 Human and physical:

Describe and understand key aspects of:

  • Physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
  • Human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

Year 1

Let’s explore London

My world and Me

  • Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to key physical and human features.
  • Be able to verbalise and write about similarities and differences between the features of the two localities.
  • Ask questions, observe and record.
  • Express opinions.





Year 2

Let’s go on Safari

Seas and coasts

  • Use maps and globes to identify and make predictions.
  • Identify and locate places on the Equator which are the hottest.
  • Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to key physical and human features.






Year 3

In the desert


  • Locate places in the world where volcanoes occur.
  • Understand and be able to communicate in different ways the cause of volcanoes and the process that occurs before a volcano erupts.
  • Draw diagrams, produce writing and use the correct vocabulary for each stage of the process of volcanic eruption.
  • Ask and answer questions about the effects of volcanoes.
  • Discuss how volcanoes affect human life e.g. settlements and spatial variation.






Year 4

Spain and Catalonia

Investigating India

  • Look at pictures and labelled diagrams.
  • Ask and answer questions through own knowledge and self-conducted research.
  • Study maps.
  • Draw conclusions about the location of the settlements based on prior knowledge.
  • Compare with current maps and make suggestions about change.






Year 5

South America


  • Use the language of rivers e.g. erosion, deposition, transportation.
  • Explain and present the process of rivers.
  • Compare how river use has changed over time and research the impact on trade in history.
  • Research and discuss how water effects the environment, settlement, environmental change and sustainability.
  • Identify trade links around the world based on a few chosen items e.g. coffee, chocolate, bananas.
  • Discover where food comes from.
  • Study maps and pictures/ compare and contrast.
  • Discuss land use and draw conclusions. Explain and present the differences.
  • Reflect on the impact trade has on an area and generate ideas for cause and effect.






Year 6

Exploring Africa

Water World

  • Study population numbers reflect on the reasons for changes.
  • Draw conclusions and develop informed reasons for the changes.
  • Reflect on changes in a location over time.
  • Look at maps on different scales and calculate scales on own maps.
  • Research and present a countries export trade
  • Ask and answer geographical questions on specific countries.