    Year 1

• read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs
•  represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
•  add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
•  solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = – 9. Year 2

• solve problems with addition and subtraction:
• using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
•  applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods
•  recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
• add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
• a two-digit number and ones
• a two-digit number and tens
•  two two-digit numbers
• show that addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot
• recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems.  Year 3

• add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
• a three-digit number and ones
•  a three-digit number and tens
•  a three-digit number and hundreds
• add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
•  estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
•  solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction.  Year 4

• add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
• estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
• solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why. Year 5

• add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)
• add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
• use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
• solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why. Year 6

• perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
•  identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
•  use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the four operations
•  solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why Mathematics – key stages 1 and 2 40 Statutory requirements
•  solve problems involving addition, subtraction
•  use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy. Top